Cruciate ligaments lesions
The knee achieves stability through two systems consisting of stabilising ligaments – the medial-lateral and anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). In the event of injury , the regeneration of cruciate ligaments is uncertain. Since their function is anteroposterior stabilisation of the knee, it is advisable to determine the stability of the knee because, without it, the articular structures would progressively deteriorate. The ACL is responsible for preventing dislocation of the femur on the tibia and limiting external rotation, and can become overstretched or suffer from a partial or total tear if a rotational movement, blow or hyperextension of the knee occurs. The ACL can tear at the same time as the MLL and the medial meniscus, representing the classic knee injury. A front-on impact to the knee or a hyperextension movement can cause injury of the posterior cruciate ligament. Depending on severity, distention and whether the tear is partial or complete, they are classified as Grade 1, 2 or 3. The menisci can suf fer tears due to indirect, generally violent, trauma to the knee, often associated with ligament injuries.
A crunching sound at the moment of injury with severe pain. Inflammation of the knee after a few hours, leading to anteroposterior knee instability, and potentially resulting in arthritis in the joint. ACL injuries can be compensated by stabilising elements, and quadriceps and hamstring musculature.
Rehabilitation helps to recover knee mobility and improve muscle strength.
Stabilising orthoses featuring flexion-extension control joints can regulate movement range and limit tension in the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, facilitating healing and enabling the movement range to be gradually extended.
Orthoses that provide complete immobilisation are very useful for moving patients prior to surgery and as immediate treatment at the time of the injury. Other types of orthoses with control and stabilisation systems are essential as a preventative measure during sporting activities and after ligament injury recovery.